The build-up to the war.
1918 – WW1 ends. Creation of Weimar Republic.
1919 – Treaty of Versailles.
1920 – Nazi party formed.
1921 – Hitler becomes leader – ‘fuhrer’ – of the Nazi party.
1923 – Munich Putsch – an attempted seize at power by the Nazis.
1924 – Hitler imprisoned. Writes Mein Kampf.
1927 – First Nuremburg Rally.
1933 – Hitler becomes Chancellor of Germany. All political parties – except Nazi party – banned in Germany.
1935 – Significant army expansion by Germany.
1936 – Germany allies with Italy. Spanish Civil War begins (right-wing forces aided by Germany).
1938 – Munich Agreement between Germany, and France and Britain.
March 1939 – Germany invades Czechoslovakia (against terms of Munich Agreement). Britain and France vow to protect Poland in event of invasion.
August 1939 – Soviet Union and Russia agree to split Poland between them.
September 1939 – Germany invades Poland; Britain and France declare war on Germany.
Denmark, Norway, and Belgium invaded and occupied by Germany.
January – Food rationing begins in Britain.
May – Churchill takes over from Chamberlain as Prime Minister of Britain; Evacuation of Dunkirk begins.
June – Mussolini declares war on France; Paris falls to Germany; France surrenders.
August – Battle of Britain begins. The Blitz terrorises Britain.
October – Hitler abandons plans to invade Britain.
February – Fighting begins in Northern Africa between Germany and the Allies.
April – Greece invaded and occupied by Germany.
May – Blitz ends.
June – Germany begins Operation Barbarossa: the attempted invasion of Russia.
September – Siege of Leningrad (now St Petersburg) began; Nazis capture Kiev.
October – Germany attacks Moscow.
December – Moscow fights back at Germany; Japan attacks Pearl Harbour; Britain and USA declare war on Japan; Germany declares war on USA.
January – Japan attacks Philippines.
February – Japan attacks Northern Australia.
June – Siege of Sebastopol.
August – Germany attacks Stalingrad.
October – Battle of El Alamein begins.
November – Russians fight back in Stalingrad.
Spring – Constant fighting for power in Russian cities.
May – Germany surrenders Northern Africa to Allies.
July – Rome suffers Allied bombing; Mussolini arrested.
August – Italy seeks armistice with Allies; Germany sends troops to Italy to prevent this.
September – USA and Britain invade Italy.
November – German troops leave Kiev.
January – Siege of Leningrad ends.
May – Sebastopol reclaimed by Russia.
June – Allied troops enter Rome; D-Day landings in Normandy.
July – An assassination plot by Claus von Stauffenberg comes closest of any attempts to killing Hitler. He survives.
August – German troops leave Paris.
September – Brussells liberated by Allies.
December – Battle of the Bulge begins.
January – Battle of the Bulge ends; Germany begins what will ultimately be the final retreat; Russia liberates Budapest and Warsaw.
February-March – Battle of Iwo Jima.
March – Last bomb lands in Britain.
April – F. D. Roosevelt dies; Russian troops enter Vienna; British and American troops enter Germany; Mussolini executed; Hitler commits suicide.
May – Berlin surrenders to Russia; Germany surrenders; V-E Day.
August – Atomic bombs dropped in Hiroshima and Nagasaki.
September – Japan surrenders; V-J Day.
November – Nuremburg trials begin.
Relevant dates in the Holocaust:
January – Hitler becomes Chancellor of Germany.
March – Dachau concentration camp built; Enabling Act grants Hitler power of a dictator.
April – Nazi boycott of Jewish businesses; Gestapo is created.
From September 1933 onwards – Jews prohibited from holding a gradually increasing list of local offices and positions.
May – Jews banned from serving in the German military.
June – Forced abortions made legal for women carrying babies with ‘defects’.
September – Nuremburg Race Laws passed.
August – Summer Olympics in Berlin. Anti-Semitism is hidden from international audience.
Early months – A series of further restrictions and limitations placed upon Jewish lives/businesses.
November – Kristellnacht. Nazi troops murder Jews across Germany and destroy their homes and businesses; Jewish pupils expelled from non-Jewish schools.
April – Jews moved to Jewish houses.
September – Quote from Nazi newspaper, Der Stürmer, published by Julius Streicher – “The Jewish people ought to be exterminated root and branch. Then the plague of pests would have disappeared in Poland at one stroke.”
November – Polish Jews forced to wear yellow stars.
January – Auschwitz built.
February – German Jews deported to Poland.
April – Lodz Ghetto in Poland established – 230,000 Jews are placed inside, isolated from the rest of the world.
July – Nazis consider plan to deport all Jews to Madagascar.
November – Ghettos established in Warsaw and Krakow.
Hans Frank, Gauleiter of Poland, states, “I ask nothing of the Jews except that they should disappear.”
March – German Jews forced into labour.
June – Nazis invade Russia (inheriting some 3 million Jews).
July – Majdanek concentration camp (near Lublin, Poland) becomes operational.
September – German Jews forced to wear yellow stars.
January – Auschwitz-Birkenau begins using gas to exterminate Jews en masse.
March – Jews from occupied territories sent to Auschwitz.
June – Yellow stars enforced in occupied German territories; Auschwitz expands to accommodate mass imports of Jews.
July – Jews from the Warsaw ghetto sent to Treblinka camp.
December – German Jews sent to Auschwitz.
January – Gypsies arrested and sent to concentration camps.
March – Krakow ghetto is exterminated.
August – A revolt in Treblinka sees the ‘offenders’ hunted and massacred by the Nazis; Treblinka ceases exterminations, having killed approx. 870,000 Jews.
October – 7,220 Danish Jews are shipped to safety by the Danish Underground.
April – Three men escape from Auschwitz and return safely to Czechoslovakia. They are able to send out warnings regarding the true nature of the ‘work’ camps.
July – Russian troops liberate Majdanek camp. Approx. 360,000 Jews had died there.
August – Anne Frank and those living with her are captured and sent to Auschwitz; the last ghetto in Poland – Lodz – is liquidated.
October – Gas chambers in Auschwitz are used for the final time.
January – Death marches out of the camps begin as Allied troops close in on German territories; Russia liberates Auschwitz – approx. 2 million people had been killed there, 1.5 million of which were Jews.
March – Anne Frank dies in Bergen-Belsen.
April – British troops liberate Bergen-Belsen.
May – Germany surrenders; camps liberated en masse by Allied troops.
October – Hans Frank states, “A thousand years will pass and the guilt of Germany will not be erased.”
Website used for reference:
Link/cite this page
If you use any of the content on this page in your own work, please use the code below to cite this page as the source of the content.
Link will appear as World War 2 Timeline: https://worldwar2.org.uk - WorldWar2.org.uk, September 8, 2013